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Important Physical and Chemical Properties of Nitrogen

Nitrogen is the element corresponding to the atomic number 7. It is denoted by symbol ‘N’. This element was first isolated in the year 1772 by the Scottish chemist Daniel Rutherford. Under standard conditions, two covalently bonded nitrogen atoms form a dinitrogen (N2) molecule. Approximately 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere is made up of this gas. The electron configuration of nitrogen is [He]2s22p3. Some other important physical and chemical properties of nitrogen are listed in this article.

Physical Properties

The standard atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.007. Dinitrogen has a colorless appearance in its gaseous and liquid phases. This element corresponds to the 15th group (pnictogen family) and the 2nd period of the modern periodic table. It is, therefore, a p-block element. At standard conditions for temperature and pressure, nitrogen exists in the gaseous phase. The melting and boiling points of this element correspond to 63.15 K and 77.35 K respectively. Under standard conditions, the density of nitrogen is 1.2506 grams per liter. The triple point of this element is 63.151 K.

Chemical Properties

Nitrogen exhibits a variety of oxidation states. Of these, the ‘+5’ oxidation state features a highly acidic oxide. The electronegativity of this element (on the Pauling scale) is 3.04. The first ionization enthalpy of nitrogen is 1402.3 kilojoules per mole, making it fairly difficult to remove an electron from it. The Van der Waals radius of nitrogen is 155 picometers.

Ammonia is a nitrogen-containing compound which is industrially prepared via the Haber process. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen is provided below.

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

Thus, the physical and chemical properties of nitrogen are briefly discussed in this article. To learn more about this element and other elements that make up the atmosphere, subscribe to the BYJU’S YouTube channel and enable notifications.

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